Al-Huda the Message Continues 1/38
Foundation, NJ USA Newsletter for September 2004
Article 1 - Article 2 - Article 3 - Article 4 - Article 5 - Article 6
Article 7 - Article 8 - Article 9 - Article 10 -Article 11 - Article 12
Imam Ali Naqi (a)
(excerpt from Dr. Syed Haider Hussain Shamsi's book, " And The Message
Continures--the Lives of the Twelve Imams From the Alhe Bait.)
Imam Ali (Naqi) was bom in 212 AH during the reign of Caliph Mwnoon ar-Rashid
who was responsible for the death of the Imam's grandfather, Imam Ali
ar-Reza. Mamoon died in 218 AH and his brother Mue'tasim Billah became the caliph.
He was responsible for the.death of the Imam's father, Imam Muhammad Taqi.
Mue’tasim then became busy with the construction of the new capital Samrah, and
in quelling a rebellion by his nephew, Abbas bin Mamoon in Baghdad. He ruled
the Islamic state till 227 AH. Like his predecessors, commanded the Ummah to
obey him as their religious leader.
After the death of Mu'tasim, his son Wathiq Billah became the Caliph, and
ruled for only five years till 232 AH. He was followed by his son Mutwakil who
ruled for a period of fifteen years till 247 AH. This was one of the worst
periods of suffering and oppression the members of Able Bait and their followers
had to endure.
Mutwakil was a suspicious and ill-tempered ruler. He drank alcohol much more
freely than any of his other Abbasid ancestors. He surpassed the tyrannical
rule of the Umayyad duo, Hujaj bin Yusuf and his master Abd alMalik bin
Marwan. Thousands of innocent devotees of Ahle Bait were actively sought out from
their homes and killed by all kinds of atrocities.
He had forbidden the devotees of the Able Bait from visiting the shrines of
Imam Husain and other Imams and martyrs. He had imposed the penalty of
amputation of one limb each time a devotee made such a trip. He was amazed to note
that there were people who paid the stiff penalty more than once to make the
ziyara. Notwithstanding his failure to deter the pilgrims from making the
devotional trips, he decided to demolish the shrines.
To his further amazement his attempts to demolish the shrines or to flood
them with water from diverted canals also failed. The water would not rise high
enough to flood the area. Anyway, these schemes of the cruel caliph failed on
two occasions. But he was not about to give up his determination to
eliminate the Alkyds and their influence for all times.
In 234 AH. Mutwakil appointed Abd Allah bin Muhammad as governor of Madinah,
with specific instructions to purge and to disperse the Alkyds from their
homes. The Imam wrote a letter of complaints to the Caliph about the undue
pressures imposed on his household by the new governor. This gave the Caliph the
excuse to have the Imam move from Madinah to Samrah, with an escort of three
hundred mounted soldiers. The army was not sent there to protect the Imam but
to have him arrested, and to prevent any possible reprisals by his devotees.
The Imam was brought to Samrah in 236 AH, and was housed in the notorious
garrison precinct of the city, which was well protected with guards posted on the
entrance. While the Imam was in Madinah, the Caliph was not able to assess
the popularity of the Imam among his followers. As the people became aware of
the whereabouts of the Imam they started to come to him for advice and for the
interpretations of the Quran. To prevent the people from seeking him, the
Caliph kept moving the Imam's residence from house arrest to the formal prison,
and from the prison to a comer of his own palace, and back again to house
arrest at some other location. He had to move the Imam from the formal prison to
house arrest since the prison guards became influenced by the Imam's piety and
preaching, and became his devotees. And, he had to move him away from house
arrest because of the stream of devotees the Imam used to attract. While the
Imam was under house arrest, the Caliph would send police to search his
residence at odd times under the slightest excuse, looking for any munitions against
his authority. He never found clues against the Imam in all of his random
searches. Thus, the Imam was kept in virtual house arrest for a period of over
twenty years during most of the period of Mutwakil's rule as well as the rule
of his successors.
During this period of time, Mutwakil changed his faith from the Mu'tazill to
the Shafii school. He appointed two muftis in the two major mosques and had
them instructed to get people involved in the fruitless discussions over the
question of predestination, and Qadha and Qadr. People got tangled up in the
discussions designed by the Caliph.
Decadence in the state was making people feel uneasy. The Caliph's own son
Muntansir Billah, who had turned forty-two, got ambitious. He decided to
capture the caliphate for himself. With the help of some Turkish defectors, he had
his father assassinated and gained access to the throne. People paid fealty
to him and prayed behind him as their spiritual leader. However, his was a
short life span, and he died within six months. He was succeeded by his brother
Musta'in (248 AH).
By the same token, the Alkyds were getting restless at the unending tyranny
of Mutwakil's reign. In 250 AH, two leaders of prominence, one from the
lineage of Zaid bin Ali in Kufa and the other from Zaid bin Hasan in Tabaristan rose
to carve out a zone of peace for their clans and the Shiites. However,
despite the apparent internal disruption in the Abbasid Caliphate, the Turkish army
was still loyal and strong. These, and several other uprisings in the empire
were successfully crushed.
A civil war broke out in the capital city in 252 AH. With the help of the
Turkish generals, Mu'tazz had his own brother Musta'in assassinated and became
the Caliph. However, the vast nation was in turmoil and Mu'tazz felt insecure.
He considered Imam Ali Naqi, being the leader of the Alkyds, to be a
possible living threat to his stability. In 254 AH, he got the Imam killed by poison
in his own home. His body was laid to rest in the same house where he had
When Imam Ali Naqi left Madinah, he knew that he would not be allowed to
return to his ancestoral home. Although his son Hasan was only four years of age
at that time, he had declared that after his death, his son Hasan would
succeed him as the next Imam.
REFLECRIONS FROM THE LIFE OF IMAM ALI NAQI
Having been deprived of the patronage of his father at a young age, some well
wishing devotees thought that it might be appropriate to appoint a tutor for
the youth. Umar bin Farrah sent Obayd Allah Jonaidi for this purpose. After
a while he was asked on the progress of youth. Jonaidi said that if it were
asstuned that he was teaching the youth something, then they should know that
the youth had taught him things he never knew. When Mutwakil brought him to
Samrah, he was only twenty-four years of age.
The Imam witnessed the waning glow of the Abbasid Caliphate when the seat of
government revolved under several rapidly changing caliphs. He refrained from
the temptation of an easy win of the Caliphate for himself If he had done so,
it would have shown his political ambition, and would have ruined the
generations of sacrifices made by his ancestors to continue upholding the values of
Truth and justice. Ahle Bait were never thirsty for political gains. They had
lived and died for the cause and the values of Islam.
Although the Imam had a very limited exposure to his followers, he left some
renowned students who expounded his word to others for many years later.
Despite their contemptuous behavior towards the Imam, he was called upon by the
Caliph to answer complicated questions on the meanings and the interpretations
of the Qur'an and on the Islamic law. He had stood up in defense of Islam on
many occasions in the Caliph's court. Many of his quotes were collected by his
devotees for reference in later times. Likewise, people had also collected
many of his supplications.
1. Once he told his devotees, "Take good care of gifts of the
Lord and thank Him for having given them to you. Remember that the self always
turn, towards gratification, and defied deterrents. Seek to subdue its desire
for vain things."
2. He told his companion Fateh bin Yazid Jarjani, "Strive to obey
Allah in all His commandments, turn to the life of the Prophet and seek
Allah's help to follow it, and seek those in whom He vested the authority to
interpret the Qur'an and the Islamic law."
3. He told his companions, "Remember that day when you separate
from your loved ones for ever, when no physician can keep you back, and no
friend can benefit you."
4. He told Caliph al-Mutwakil:
-"Do not expect devout obedience from someone whom you had treated with
- Do not expect loyalty from one who you had betrayed.
- Do not expect good advice from one whom you had treated with mistrust. His
feelings for you are not any better than yours for him."
1. One who is pleased with his self, has more of those who would
not be pleased with him.
2. The one who is contented, has only one problem to face, but
the one who bemoans, has many more problems.
3 . Backbiting is the humor of the idiot, and the art of the
4. Keeping awake enhances the sweetness of sleep, just as hunger
enhances the taste of food.
5 . The world is with wealth but the hereafter only with deeds.
6. Avoid jealousy, for it reveals your action, but none of your
7. The worst affliction is ill manners.
8. Ignorance and meanness are worst conduct.
9. The world is like a market where one group benefits while the
10. Keeping bad company shows your own flaw.
II. Morphic beauty is only of the exterior, but wisdom is beauty
of the interior.
12. One who seeks fast motion is slave of his desires, the idiot is
slave of his tongue.
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